Solar Controller

What is an MPPT solar controller?

  • 2022-01-14 15:31:51

The MPPT solar controller system is an electrical system that enables the photovoltaic panels to output more electricity by adjusting the working state of the electrical modules. It can effectively store the DC electricity emitted by the solar panels in the solar panel battery system and can effectively solve the problem of domestic and industrial electricity consumption in remote areas and tourist areas that cannot be covered by the conventional power grid, without generating environmental pollution. The output power of a photovoltaic cell is related to the operating voltage of the MPPT solar controller and will only have a unique maximum output power if it is operating at the most suitable voltage.

A traditional solar charge and discharge controller is a bit like a manual gearbox, when the engine speed increases, if the gearbox gears are not increased accordingly, it will inevitably affect the speed of the vehicle. With conventional controllers, however, the charging parameters are set before they leave the factory, meaning that the MPPT controller will instantly track the maximum power point in the solar panel to maximise the effectiveness of the solar panel. Theoretically, a solar power system using an MPPT controller will be 50% more efficient than a conventional one, but according to our practical tests, the final efficiency can also be increased by 20-30% due to the influence of the surrounding environment and various energy losses. In this sense, the MPPT solar charge and discharge controller is bound to eventually replace the traditional solar controller.

MPPT solar controller

To charge the battery, the output voltage of the solar panel must be higher than the current voltage of the battery, if the voltage of the solar panel is lower than the voltage of the battery then the output current will be close to 0. So, for safety reasons, the solar panels are manufactured to leave the factory with a peak voltage (Vpp) of around 17V, which is set at an ambient temperature of 25°C. When the weather is very hot, the peak voltage Vpp of the solar panel drops to around 15V, but in cold weather the peak solar voltage Vpp can reach 18V.

The main function of the MPPT controller: detecting the main circuit DC voltage and output current, calculating the output power of the solar array and realising the tracking of the maximum power point. The perturbation resistor R and the MOSFET are connected in series.

The output current and voltage of the photovoltaic panel will also change, by measuring the changes in the output power and voltage of the photovoltaic cell before and after the perturbation, in order to determine the direction of the next cycle of perturbation, when the perturbation direction is correct solar panel output power increases, the next cycle continue to perturbation in the same direction, and vice versa, perturbation in the opposite direction, so, repeatedly perturbation and observation to make the high efficient solar photovoltaic panel output up to the maximum power point.

FOTOVO solar has become synonymous with high performing, top quality photovoltaic modules and specializes in PV technology innovation, application and system development. The company is a key component supplier,system integrator and project developer..

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