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P to N node has arrived, the curtain of the PV revolution opened

  • March 18, 2022

P to N node has arrived, the curtain of the PV revolution opened

Efficiency, yield, cost, N-type battery efficiency and cost reduction space is a greater advantage; recent raw materials soaring more will accelerate the transition to N-type, P-type production line to N-type battery key point has arrived.


Why should we do N-type?

First of all, why do N-type, the evolution of the development of the module trend, in short, is the power of climbing, or directly linked to the cell efficiency. N-type Top-con cell, the efficiency limit is much higher than PERC cell (28.2%~28.7%). N-type cell has the advantages of high conversion efficiency, high bi-facial rate, low temperature coefficient, no light decay, good low light effect, longer carrier life, etc. In the long run, it has the absolute advantage of cost performance. It can be said that the rise of N-type technology is an inevitable trend in the future.


At present, there are three main types of N-type battery technology, namely, Top-con, HJT and IBC, and the following is a comparison of these three processes from various perspectives, such as efficiency, cost and process.


(1) From the efficiency point of view, the ultimate theoretical efficiency of Top-con cell reaches 28.7%, higher than 27.5% of HJT and 24.5% of PERC, and the efficiency of batch production line is more than 24%, even so there is still a certain gap from the ultimate efficiency, and there is still much room for efficiency improvement.


(2) From the process point of view, Top-con and HJT achieve power improvement by passivation, but the former by tunneling through the oxide layer, HJT through the deposition of amorphous silicon film way. basically replace all PERC line.


(3) From the cost perspective, the direct result of the difference in process is the increase in equipment cost of 240~400 million ¥/GW. The difference in silver paste consumption, based on current data, the silver paste consumption of HJT cells is about twice that of Top-con, and this multiplier will not be leveled in the near future. The difference in process, thus leading to the difference in commercialization cost between the two (about 0.3 ¥/W), with the rising cost of silver paste, there may be more than 0.3 ¥/W difference.


The key point of P-type production line to N-type battery has come, the advantage of N-type battery efficiency and cost reduction space will be reflected, the recent soaring raw materials will accelerate the transition to N-type. Among them, Top-con is the most cost-effective route, with high cell conversion efficiency limits, low equipment costs, and more room for mass production speed up.


Top-con cell technology, i.e. tunneling through oxide layer passivation contact technology. Since the metal electrode of PERC cell is still in direct contact with the silicon substrate, the contact interface between metal and semiconductor will generate energy band bending due to the mismatch of the work function and produce a large number of oligon composite centers, which negatively affects the efficiency of solar cells. Therefore, some scholars proposed a cell design scheme to reduce the oligon complex by isolating the metal from the silicon substrate with a thin film, preparing an ultra-thin layer of silicon oxide on the back side of the cell, and then depositing a thin layer of doped silicon, both of which together form a passivated contact structure. The ultra-thin oxide layer enables the tunneling of multiple electrons into the poly silicon layer while blocking the oligon hole compound, and then the lateral transport of electrons in the poly silicon layer is collected by the metal, which greatly reduces the metal contact compound current and improves the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the cell, thus enhancing the cell conversion efficiency.


From the mass production efficiency improvement is obvious, 2021 industrialization development speed up. The current Top-con mass production situation, the average mass production efficiency mainly in 24.5%, the highest efficiency reached 25%, mono-crystalline silicon wafer commercial size Top-con cell efficiency exceeded 25.4% for the first time, setting the latest world record.

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